Transportation is an important link of the logistics system. Transport is a branch of material production, transporting people and goods.
Vehicles must have a number of necessary properties and satisfy certain requirements in order to create innovative systems for the collection and distribution of goods. First of all, transport should be flexible enough to provide the transportation process that is subject to weekly or even daily adjustments, to ensure frequent and clock delivery of goods in scattered and remote locations, reliably serve clients in order to avoid interruption of business or deficit at the client. Simultaneously, transport must be able to carry small loads over short intervals, in accordance with changing user demands and conditions of small-scale production.
Transportation is represented as a system consisting of two subsystems: public transport and transport non-generic use.
Public transport is a sector of the economy that meets needs of all sectors of the economy and the population in the transportation of cargo and passengers. Public transport serves the scope of treatment and population. It is often called the backbone (backbone is a main line in any system, in this case – the system of means of communication).
Transport non-generic use – in-plant operations, as well as vehicles of all kinds, belonging to the non-transport enterprises, is typically an integral part of any production systems.
Here are the main means of transport: rail, marine, inland, waterways (river), automobile, air, and pipeline.
Each of the modes of transport has specific characteristics in terms of logistics management, strengths and weaknesses, determine the possibilities of its use in the logistics system.
Rail. Advantages: high throughput, and the freight, regardless of climatic conditions, time of year and day, high frequency of traffic, the ability to effectively organize the implementation of loading and unloading operations; relatively low rates and significant discounts for transit shipments, high speed delivery of goods over long distances. Disadvantages: limited number of carriers, large capital investments in industrial and technology base, high material and energy intensity of transport, low accessibility to the final point of sales (consumption), high enough of the cargo.
Naval. Advantages: possibility of intercontinental transport, low cost of transport over long distances, the freight and high throughput, low capital intensity of transport. Disadvantages: limited traffic, low speed of delivery (large transit time), depending on geographical, navigational and weather conditions, the need for complex email infrastructure, stringent requirements for packaging and stowage of cargo, the low frequency of shipments.
Inland waterways (river). Advantages: high carrying capacity in the deep rivers and reservoirs, low transportation costs, low capital intensity. Disadvantages: limited traffic, low speed of delivery of goods; dependence on the uneven depth of rivers and reservoirs, navigation conditions, seasonality, low reliability of transport and cargo safety.
Road transport. Advantages: high availability, possibility of delivery of cargo from door to door; high agility, flexibility, agility, ability to use different routes and delivery schemes, high safety of the cargo, the possibility of sending the goods in small batches; great opportunity to select the most suitable carrier. Disadvantages: low productivity, dependence on weather and road conditions, the relatively high cost of transport over long distances, lack of environmental cleanliness, punctuality of discharge, a relatively small payload.
Air transport. Advantages: the highest speed of delivery, high reliability, the highest integrity; the possibility of reaching remote areas. Disadvantages: high cost of transportation, the highest rates among the other modes of transport, high capital intensity, material and energy transport, the dependence on weather conditions.
Pipeline. Advantages: low cost, high capacity, high safety of the cargo, low capital intensity. Disadvantages: limited types of cargo (gas, oil, emulsions and raw materials), low availability of small volumes of transported cargo.
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